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Who should perform security scan

If you are working on driver code, Vuls and Lynis are needed.

If you are developing container based application code, Vuls, Lynis and Kuber-Hunter are needed.

If you are developing VM based application code, Vuls (testing setup inside each VM) and Lynis (testing setup inside each VM) are needed.  

Vuls scan usually takes around 10 to 20 mins.

Kuber-Hunter usually takes about 10 mins. 

Lynis scan usually takes about 2 mins.    


Vuls will be integrated with Blueprint Validation Framework (Bluval User Guide)

Below are the list of tasks for integration. 


Install Vuls containers ( Vuls containers can be found at:

  • Install go-cve-dictionary, run "docker pull vuls/go-cve-dictionary"
  • Install goval-dictionary, run "docker pull vuls/goval-dictionary"
  • Install gost, run "docker pull vuls/gost"
  • Install vuls, run "docker pull vuls/vuls"

Set up and run

Detailed instruction can be found at

  • Prepare log dir

$ cd /path/to/working/dir

$ mkdir go-cve-dictionary-log goval-dictionary-log gost-log

  • Fetch NVD

$ for i in `seq 2002 $(date +"%Y")`; do \ docker run --rm -it \ -v $PWD:/vuls \ -v $PWD/go-cve-dictionary-log:/var/log/vuls \ vuls/go-cve-dictionary fetchnvd -years $i; \ done

  • Fetch OVAL

$ docker run --rm -it \ -v $PWD:/vuls \ -v $PWD/goval-dictionary-log:/var/log/vuls \ vuls/goval-dictionary fetch-redhat 5 6 7

  • Fetch gost

$ docker run --rm -i \ -v $PWD:/vuls \ -v $PWD/goval-log:/var/log/gost \ vuls/gost fetch redhat

  • Config the SUT, configuration will be stored in config.toml
    • SSH key generation & distribution: As Vuls connects to target server through SSH, and Vuls has to use SSH key-based authentication. There needs to be a way to generate SSH key pair, save the private key for Vuls container and dispatch the public key to target server. We probably don’t want to store the private key with the container image if the container image is public accessible.



host = ""

port = "22"

user = "vuls-user"

keyPath = "/root/.ssh/id_rsa" # path to ssh private key in docker

  • Start Vuls container to run tests
  • Write Bluval configuration file for security tests
  • Push test results to LF Nexus
    • Todo: How to tell test success or fail
    • Todo: Sample Test result
  • Show test results in Bluval UI

PASS/FAIL Criteria

All High and Medium vulnerabilities detected by Vuls must be patched/fixed.  After patches/fixes are applied Vuls must be run again to verify that the vulnerability is no longer detected.

Exceptions for vulnerabilities must be sent to the security sub-committee.


Lynis requires to run on SUT (System Under Test). The overall test framework will the similar to that of Vuls. As to the Lynis installation, there are two options:

  1. Lynis is pre-installed on SUT by project team.
  2. Lynis is to be installed as part of test flow from Validation Framework. 

Considering the complexity of installing application on target system, it is recommended that option 1 is to be used. 

For more information about Lynis, please check the link below:

Install and Execute 

If you are using CentOS:

$  yum install lynis; lynis audit system

If you are using Ubuntu:

git clone

$ cd lynis; ./lynis audit system


After running, detailed test logs are stored in  /var/log/lynis.log, information for each test includes:

  • Time of an action/event
  • Reason(s) why a test failed or was skipped
  • Output of (internal) tests
  • Suggestions about configuration options or how to fix/improve things
  • Threat/impact score

In addition to log file, Lynis also creates a report and stores it in /var/log/lynis-report.dat. The report file contains the following information:

  • Remarks = #<remark>
  • Section = [<section name>]
  • Option/value = <option name>=<value of option>

PASS/FAIL Criteria

  1. The Lynis Program Update test MUST pass with no errors.
  2. The following list of tests MUST complete as passing as described below.

    In the lynis.log outputfile each test suite has one or more individual tests.  The beginning and ending of a test suite is marked with "====".  For example, the 'ID BOOT-5122' test suite should display:

    020-04-08 15:36:28 ====
    2020-04-08 15:36:28 Performing test ID BOOT-5122 (Check for GRUB boot password)
    2020-04-08 15:36:29 Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (3). 
    2020-04-08 15:36:29 ===

    If any tests in the test suit failed, there would be the following:

    2020-04-08 15:36:29 Suggestion: <Description of failed test>

    Also, the 'Hardening' line show above would not say 'assigned maximum number of hardening points', instead it would say 'assigned partial number of hardening points'.

1Performing test ID BOOT-5122 (Check for GRUB boot password)
2Performing test ID BOOT-5184 (Check permissions for boot files/scripts)
3Test: Checking presence /var/run/reboot-required.pkgs
4Performing test ID AUTH-9228 (Check password file consistency with pwck)
5Performing test ID AUTH-9229 (Check password hashing methods)
6Test: Checking SHA_CRYPT_MIN_ROUNDS option in /etc/login.defs
7Test: Checking PASS_MAX_DAYS option in /etc/login.defs
8Test: collecting accounts which have an expired password (last day changed + maximum change time)
9Performing test ID AUTH-9328 (Default umask values)
10Performing test ID FILE-6368 (Checking ACL support on root file system)
11Performing test ID USB-2000 (Check USB authorizations)
12Performing test ID USB-3000 (Check for presence of USBGuard)
13Performing test ID PKGS-7370 (Checking for debsums utility)
14Performing test ID PKGS-7388 (Check security repository in apt sources.list file)
15Performing test ID SSH-7408 (Check SSH specific defined options)
16Test: Checking AllowTcpForwarding in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
17Test: Checking ClientAliveCountMax in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
18Test: Checking ClientAliveInterval in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
19Test: Checking FingerprintHash in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
20Test: Checking IgnoreRhosts in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
21Test: Checking MaxAuthTries in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
22Test: Checking MaxSessions in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
23Test: Checking Port in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
24Test: Checking StrictModes in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
25Test: Checking TCPKeepAlive in /tmp/lynis.ZotHQ7RQAj
26Performing test ID SSH-7440 (Check OpenSSH option: AllowUsers and AllowGroups)
27Test: checking for file /etc/network/if-up.d/ntpdate
28Performing test ID KRNL-6000 (Check sysctl key pairs in scan profile)
29Test: Check if one or more compilers can be found on the system


PASS/FAIL Criteria

The kube-hunter vulnerabilities listed as 'Yes' in the 'Critical' column MUST be resolved.

Kube-Hunter VulnerabilityCVECriticalRemediation
1KHV002 - Kubernetes version disclosure
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
2KHV003 - Azure Metadata Exposure
No - Azure Only
3KHV004 - Azure SPN Exposure
No - Azure Only
4KHV005 - Access to Kubernetes API
5KHV006 - Insecure (HTTP) access to Kubernetes API
YesEnsure your setup is exposing kube-api only on an HTTPS port.

Do not enable kube-api’s --insecure-port flag in production.
6KHV007 - Specific Access to Kubernetes API
YesReview the RBAC permissions to Kubernetes API server for the anonymous and default service account.

Depending on the Kubernetes cluster setup and preferences this may not be a problem.
7KHV020 - Possible Arp Spoof
YesConsider dropping the NET_RAW capability from your pods using Pod.spec.securityContext.capabilities
8KHV021 - Certificate Includes Email Address
YesDo not include email address in the Kubernetes API server certificate. (You should continue to use certificates to secure the API Server!)
9KHV022 - Critical Privilege Escalation CVECVE-2018-1002105YesKubernetes v1.0.x-1.9.x – no fix available 

Kubernetes v1.10.0-1.10.10  – fixed in v1.10.11 

Kubernetes v1.11.0-1.11.4 – fixed in v1.11.5 

Kubernetes v1.12.0-1.12.2 – fixed in v1.12.3 
10KHV023 - Denial of Service to Kubernetes API ServerCVE-2019-1002100YesUpgrade your kube-apiserver to newer versions, namely v1.11.8, v1.12.6, or v1.13.4

If you cannot upgrade, or until you do, the best course of action is to remove patch permissions from untrusted users, or generally from admins who don’t really use it.
12KHV024 - Possible Ping Flood AttackCVE-2019-9512YesDisable HTTP/2 support OR obtain a software patch if available

CVE-2019-9514YesDisable HTTP/2 support OR obtain a software patch if available

14KHV026 - Arbitrary Access To Cluster Scoped ResourcesCVE-2019-11247YesVulnerable versions:               Fixed versions:

Kubernetes 1.7.x-1.12.x         Fixed in v1.13.9 by #80852

Kubernetes 1.13.0-1.13.8       Fixed in v1.14.5 by #80851

Kubernetes 1.14.0-1.14.4       Fixed in v1.15.2 by #80850

Kubernetes 1.15.0-1.15.1       Fixed in master by #80750
15KHV027 - Kubectl Vulnerable To CVE-2019-11246CVE-2019-11246YesUpdate your kubectl client to one of the following versions: 1.12.9, 1.13.6, 1.14.2

16KHV028 - Kubectl Vulnerable To CVE-2019-1002101CVE-2019-1002101YesThe issue is resolved in kubectl v1.11.9, v1.12.7, v1.13.5, and v1.14.0.

17KHV029 - Dashboard Exposed
YesDo not leave the Dashboard insecured.
18KHV030 - Possible DNS Spoof
YesConsider using DNS over TLS. CoreDNS (the common DNS server for Kubernetes) supports this out of the box, but your client applications might not.
19KHV031 - Etcd Remote Write Access Event
YesEnsure your etcd is accepting connections only from the Kubernetes API, using the --trusted-ca-file etcd flag. This is usually done by the installer, or cloud platform.
20KHV032 - Etcd Remote Read Access Event
YesEnsure your etcd is accepting connections only from the Kubernetes API, using the --trusted-ca-file etcd flag. This is usually done by the installer, or cloud platform.
21KHV033 - Etcd Remote version disclosure
22KHV034 - Etcd is accessible using insecure connection (HTTP)
YesEnsure your setup is exposing etcd only on an HTTPS port by using the etcd flags --key-file and --cert-file.
23KHV036 - Anonymous Authentication
YesEnsure kubelet is protected using --anonymous-auth=false kubelet flag. Allow only legitimate users using --client-ca-file or --authentication-token-webhook kubelet flags. This is usually done by the installer or cloud provider.
24KHV037 - Exposed Container Logs
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
25KHV038 - Exposed Running Pods
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
26KHV039 - Exposed Exec On Container
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
27KHV040 - Exposed Run Inside Container
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
28KHV041 - Exposed Port Forward
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
29KHV042 - Exposed Attaching To Container
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
30KHV043 - Cluster Health Disclosure
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
31KHV044 - Privileged Container
YesMinimize the use of privileged containers.  Use Pod Security Policies to enforce using privileged: false policy.
32KHV045 - Exposed System Logs
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
33KHV046 - Exposed Kubelet Cmdline
YesDisable --enable-debugging-handlers kubelet flag.
34KHV047 - Pod With Mount To /var/log
YesConsider disallowing running as root: Using Kubernetes Pod Security Policies with MustRunAsNonRoot policy.

Consider disallowing writable host mounts to /var/log: Using Kubernetes Pod Security Policies with AllowedHostPaths policy.
35KHV049 - kubectl proxy Exposed
YeExpose your applications in a permanent, legitimate way, such as via Ingress.

Close open proxies immediately after use.
36KHV050 - Read access to Pod service account token
YesIt is recommended to explicitly specify a Service Account for all of your workloads (serviceAccountName in Pod.Spec), and manage their permissions according to the least privilege principle.

Consider opting out automatic mounting of SA token using automountServiceAccountToken: false on ServiceAccount resource or Pod.spec.
37Access to pod's secrets

Securing etcd—secret data is stored in etcd. By default, etcd data is not encrypted and neither are your secrets. You should enable encryption at rest, limit access to etcd to admin users only, and safely dispose of disks where etcd data was formerly stored

Use SSL/TLS—when running etcd in a cluster, you must use secure peer-to-peer communication.
38CAP_NET_RAW Enabled
Yes - If applicableCAP_NET_RAW is used to open a raw socket and is used by ping.  If this is not required CAP_NET_RAW MUST be removed.

Jira tickets tracking integration with Bluval:

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