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Introduction

This document describes the blueprint test environment for the Smart Data Transaction for CPS blueprint. The test results and logs are posted in the Akraino Nexus at the link below:

https://nexus.akraino.org/content/sites/logs/fujitsu/job/

Akarino Test Group Information

N/A

Testing has been carried out at Fujitsu Limited labs without any Akraino Test Working Group resources.

Overall Test Architecture

Tests are carried out on the architecture  shown in the diagram below.

Test Bed

The test bed consists of 4 VMs running on x86 hardware, performing deploy and ci/cd and build and master node roles, two edge nodes on ARM64 (Jetson Nano) hardware, and two sensor nodes on ARM32 (Raspberry Pi) hardware.

Node TypeCountHardwareOS

CI/CD

1Intel i5, 2 cores VMUbuntu 20.04
Build1Intel i5, 2 cores VMUbuntu 20.04
Deploy1Intel i5, 2 cores VMUbuntu 20.04
Master1Intel i5, 2 cores VMUbuntu 20.04
Edge2Jetson Nano, ARM Cortex-A57, 4 coresUbuntu 20.04
Camera2H.View HV-500E6AN/A (pre-installed)

The Build VM is used to run the BluVal test framework components outside the system under test.

Test Framework

BluVal and additional tests are carried out using Robot Framework.

Traffic Generator

N/A

Test API description

CI/CD Regression Tests: Node Setup

This set of test cases confirms the scripting to change the default runtime of edge nodes.

The Test inputs

The test scripts and data are stored in the source repository's cicd/tests/sdt_step2/install/ directory.

Test Procedure

The test bed is place in a state where all nodes are prepared with required software. No EdgeX or Kubernetes services are running. 

Execute the test scripts:

robot cicd/tests/sdt_step2/install/

Expected output

The test scripts will change the default runtime of edge nodes from runc to nvidia.

The robot command should report success for all test cases.

Test Results

Nexus URL: 

Pass (1/1 test case)

CI/CD Regression Tests: Images Build & Push

These test cases verify that the images for EdgeX microservices can be constructed, and pushed to private registry.

The Test inputs

The test scripts and data are stored in the source repository's cicd/tests/sdt_step2/build/ directory.

Test Procedure

The test bed is placed in a state where all nodes are prepared with required software and the Docker registry is running. 

Execute the test scripts:

robot cicd/tests/sdt_step2/build/

Expected output

The test scripts will build images of changed services(sync-app/image-app/device-camera), add push the images to private registry.

The robot command should report success for all test cases.

Test Results

Nexus URL: 

Pass (2/2 test cases)

CI/CD Regression Tests: Cluster Setup & Teardown

These test cases verify that the Kubernetes cluster can be initialized, edge nodes added to it and removed, and the cluster torn down.

The Test inputs

The test scripts and data are stored in the source repository's cicd/tests/sdt_step2/cluster/ directory.

Test Procedure

The test bed is placed in a state where all nodes are prepared with required software and the Docker registry is running. The registry must be populated with the Kubernetes and Flannel images from upstream.

Execute the test scripts:

robot cicd/tests/sdt_step2/cluster/

Expected output

The test scripts will start the cluster, add all configured edge nodes, remove the edge nodes, and reset the cluster.

The robot command should report success for all test cases.

Test Results

Nexus URL: 

Pass (4/4 test cases)

CI/CD Regression Tests: EdgeX Services

These test cases verify that the EdgeX micro-services can be started and that MQTT messages are passed to the master node from the services.

The Test inputs

The test scripts and data are stored in the source repository's cicd/tests/sdt_step2/edgex/ directory.

Test Procedure

The test bed is placed in a state where the cluster is initialized and all edge nodes have joined. The Docker registry and mosquitto MQTT broker must be running on the master node. The registry must be populated with all upstream images and custom images. Either the device-camera service should be enabled, or device-virtual should be enabled to provide readings.

Execute the test scripts:

robot cicd/tests/sdt_step2/edgex/

Expected output

The test scripts will start the EdgeX micro-services on all edge nodes, confirm that MQTT messages are being delivered from the edge nodes, and stop the EdgeX micro-services.

The robot command should report success for all test cases.

Test Results

Nexus URL: 

Pass (8/8 test cases)

CI/CD Regression Tests: Camera Device Service

These test cases verify that the device-camera service can get image from IP Camera, the sync-app service can share the image to other edge node, the image-app service can analyze the image, and the support-notification can receive the crowded notification.

The Test inputs

The test steps and data are contained in the scripts in the source repository cicd/tests/sdt_step2/camera/ directory.

Test Procedure

The test bed is initialized to the point of having all EdgeX services running, with device-camera and image-app enabled.

Execute the test scripts:

robot cicd/tests/sdt_step2/camera/

Expected output

The test cases will check if MQTT messages and the core-data service containing the data of image acquisition, image sharing and image analysis, and check whether the support-notification service having the notification data of crowded after setting the crowded rule.

The Robot Framework should report success for all test cases

Test Results

Nexus URL: 

Pass (9/9 test cases)

Feature Project Tests

N/A

BluVal Tests

BluVal tests for Lynis, Vuls, and Kube-Hunter were executed on the test bed.

The Test inputs

Bluval User Guide

Steps To Implement Security Scan Requirements

https://vuls.io/docs/en/tutorial-docker.html

Test Procedure

  1. Copy the folder ~/.kube from Kubernetes master node to Build VM
  2. Create SSH Key on Build VM to access Kubernetes master node
Vuls

We use Ubuntu 20.04, so we run Vuls test as follows:

  1. Create directory

    $ mkdir ~/vuls
    $ cd ~/vuls
    $ mkdir go-cve-dictionary-log goval-dictionary-log gost-log
    
  2. Fetch NVD

    $ docker run --rm -it \
        -v $PWD:/go-cve-dictionary \
        -v $PWD/go-cve-dictionary-log:/var/log/go-cve-dictionary \
        vuls/go-cve-dictionary fetch nvd
    
  3. Fetch OVAL

    $ docker run --rm -it \
         -v $PWD:/goval-dictionary \
         -v $PWD/goval-dictionary-log:/var/log/goval-dictionary \
         vuls/goval-dictionary fetch ubuntu 16 17 18 19 20
    
  4. Fetch gost

    $ docker run --rm -i \
         -v $PWD:/gost \
         -v $PWD/gost-log:/var/log/gost \
         vuls/gost fetch ubuntu
    
  5. Create config.toml

    [servers]
    
    [servers.master]
    host = "192.168.51.22"
    port = "22"
    user = "test-user"
    keyPath = "/root/.ssh/id_rsa" # path to ssh private key in docker
    
  6. Start vuls container to run tests

    $ docker run --rm -it \
        -v ~/.ssh:/root/.ssh:ro \
        -v $PWD:/vuls \
        -v $PWD/vuls-log:/var/log/vuls \
        -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro \
        -v /etc/timezone:/etc/timezone:ro \
        vuls/vuls scan \
        -config=./config.toml
    
  7. Get the report

    $ docker run --rm -it \
         -v ~/.ssh:/root/.ssh:ro \
         -v $PWD:/vuls \
         -v $PWD/vuls-log:/var/log/vuls \
         -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro \
         vuls/vuls report \
         -format-list \
         -config=./config.toml
    
Lynis/Kube-Hunter
  1. Create ~/validation/bluval/bluval-sdtfc.yaml to customize the Test

    blueprint:
        name: sdtfc
        layers:
            - os
            - k8s
    
        os: &os
            -
                name: lynis
                what: lynis
                optional: "False"
        k8s: &k8s
            -
                name: kube-hunter
                what: kube-hunter
                optional: "False"
    
  2. Update ~/validation/bluval/volumes.yaml file

    volumes:
        # location of the ssh key to access the cluster
        ssh_key_dir:
            local: '/home/ubuntu/.ssh'
            target: '/root/.ssh'
        # location of the k8s access files (config file, certificates, keys)
        kube_config_dir:
            local: '/home/ubuntu/kube'
            target: '/root/.kube/'
        # location of the customized variables.yaml
        custom_variables_file:
            local: '/home/ubuntu/validation/tests/variables.yaml'
            target: '/opt/akraino/validation/tests/variables.yaml'
        # location of the bluval-<blueprint>.yaml file
        blueprint_dir:
            local: '/home/ubuntu/validation/bluval'
            target: '/opt/akraino/validation/bluval'
        # location on where to store the results on the local jumpserver
        results_dir:
            local: '/home/ubuntu/results'
            target: '/opt/akraino/results'
        # location on where to store openrc file
        openrc:
            local: ''
            target: '/root/openrc'
    
    # parameters that will be passed to the container at each layer
    layers:
        # volumes mounted at all layers; volumes specific for a different layer are below
        common:
            - custom_variables_file
            - blueprint_dir
            - results_dir
        hardware:
            - ssh_key_dir
        os:
            - ssh_key_dir
        networking:
            - ssh_key_dir
        docker:
            - ssh_key_dir
        k8s:
            - ssh_key_dir
            - kube_config_dir
        k8s_networking:
            - ssh_key_dir
            - kube_config_dir
        openstack:
            - openrc
        sds:
        sdn:
        vim:
    
  3. Update ~/validation/tests/variables.yaml file

    ### Input variables cluster's master host
    host: <IP Address>             # cluster's master host address
    username: <username>            # login name to connect to cluster
    password: <password>         # login password to connect to cluster
    ssh_keyfile: /root/.ssh/id_rsa        # Identity file for authentication
    
  4. Run Blucon

    $ bash validation/bluval/blucon.sh sdtfc
    

Expected output

BluVal tests should report success for all test cases.

Test Results

Vuls results (manual) Nexus URL: 

Lynis results (manual) Nexus URL: 

Kube-Hunter results Nexus URL: 

Vuls

Nexus URL: 

There are 8 CVEs with a CVSS score >= 9.0. These are exceptions requested here:

Release 5: Akraino CVE Vulnerability Exception Request

Lynis

Nexus URL (run via Bluval, without fixes): 

Nexus URL (manual run, with fixes): 

The initial results compare with the Lynis Incubation: PASS/FAIL Criteria, v1.0 as follows.

The Lynis Program Update test MUST pass with no errors.
2022-03-04 15:33:28 Test: Checking for program update...
2022-03-04 15:33:31 Current installed version  : 301
2022-03-04 15:33:31 Latest stable version      : 307
2022-03-04 15:33:31 Minimum required version   : 297
2022-03-04 15:33:31 Result: newer Lynis release available!
2022-03-04 15:33:31 Suggestion: Version of Lynis outdated, consider upgrading to the latest version [test:LYNIS] [details:-] [solution:-]

Fix: Download and run the latest Lynis directly on SUT.

Steps To Implement Security Scan Requirements#InstallandExecute

The following list of tests MUST complete as passing
No.TestResultFix
1Test: Checking PASS_MAX_DAYS option in /etc/login.defs

Result: password minimum age is not configured

Suggestion: Configure minimum password age in /etc/login.defs [test:AUTH-9286]

Set PASS_MAX_DAYS 180 in /etc/login.defs
2Performing test ID AUTH-9328 (Default umask values)

Result: found umask 022, which could be improved

Suggestion: Default umask in /etc/login.defs could be more strict like 027 [test:AUTH-9328]

Set UMASK 027 in /etc/login.defs
3Performing test ID SSH-7440 (Check OpenSSH option: AllowUsers and AllowGroups)

Result: SSH has no specific user or group limitation. Most likely all valid users can SSH to this machine.

Hardening: assigned partial number of hardening points (0 of 1).

Configure AllowUsers in /etc/ssh/sshd_config
4Test: checking for file /etc/network/if-up.d/ntpdate

Test: checking for file /etc/network/if-up.d/ntpdate

Result: file /etc/network/if-up.d/ntpdate does not exist

...

Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (3).

OK
5Performing test ID KRNL-6000 (Check sysctl key pairs in scan profile) :  Following sub-tests requiredN/AN/A
5asysctl key fs.suid_dumpable contains equal expected and current value (0)Result: sysctl key fs.suid_dumpable has a different value than expected in scan profile. Expected=0, Real=2

Set recommended value in /etc/sysctl.d/90-lynis-hardening.conf and disable apport in /etc/default/apport

5bsysctl key kernel.dmesg_restrict contains equal expected and current value (1)Result: sysctl key kernel.dmesg_restrict has a different value than expected in scan profile. Expected=1, Real=0Set recommended value in /etc/sysctl.d/90-lynis-hardening.conf
5csysctl key net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route contains equal expected and current value (0)

Result: sysctl key net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route has a different value than expected in scan profile. Expected=0, Real=1

Set recommended value in /etc/sysctl.d/90-lynis-hardening.conf
6Test: Check if one or more compilers can be found on the system

Result: found installed compiler. See top of logfile which compilers have been found or use /usr/bin/grep to filter on 'compiler'

Hardening: assigned partial number of hardening points (1 of 3).

Uninstall gcc and remove /usr/bin/as (installed with binutils)

Results after the above fixes are as follows:

The Lynis Program Update test MUST pass with no errors.
2022-03-07 15:19:07 Test: Checking for program update...
2022-03-07 15:19:10 Current installed version : 308
2022-03-07 15:19:10 Latest stable version : 307
2022-03-07 15:19:10 No Lynis update available.
The following list of tests MUST complete as passing
No.TestResult
1Test: Checking PASS_MAX_DAYS option in /etc/login.defs

Result: max password age is 180 days
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (3).

2Performing test ID AUTH-9328 (Default umask values)

Result: umask is 027, which is fine
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (2).

3Performing test ID SSH-7440 (Check OpenSSH option: AllowUsers and AllowGroups)

Result: SSH is limited to a specific set of users, which is good
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (2).

5asysctl key fs.suid_dumpable contains equal expected and current value (0)Result: sysctl key fs.suid_dumpable contains equal expected and current value (0)
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (1).
5bsysctl key kernel.dmesg_restrict contains equal expected and current value (1)Result: sysctl key kernel.dmesg_restrict contains equal expected and current value (1)
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (1).
5csysctl key net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route contains equal expected and current value (0)

Result: sysctl key net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route contains equal expected and current value (0)

Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (1).

6Test: Check if one or more compilers can be found on the system

Result: no compilers found
Hardening: assigned maximum number of hardening points for this item (3).

The post-fix manual logs can be found at https://nexus.akraino.org/content/sites/logs/fujitsu/job/sdt-lynis/3/.

Kube-Hunter

Nexus URL (initial run without fixes): https://nexus.akraino.org/content/sites/logs/fujitsu/job/sdt-bluval/1/

Nexus URL (with fixes): https://nexus.akraino.org/content/sites/logs/fujitsu/job/sdt-bluval/2/

There are 5 Vulnerabilities.

  • KHV002
  • KHV005
  • KHV050
  • CAP_NET_RAW Enabled
  • Access to pod's secrets

Fix for KHV002

$ kubectl replace -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "false"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:public-info-viewer
rules:
- nonResourceURLs:
  - /healthz
  - /livez
  - /readyz
  verbs:
  - get
EOF


Fix for KHV005, KHV050, Access to pod's secrets

$ kubectl replace -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: default
automountServiceAccountToken: false
EOF

The above fixes are implemented in the Ansible playbook deploy/playbook/init_cluster.yml and configuration file deploy/playbook/k8s/fix.yml


Fix for CAP_NET_RAW Enabled:

Create a PodSecurityPolicy with requiredDropCapabilities: NET_RAW. The policy is shown below. The complete fix is implemented in the Ansible playbook deploy/playbook/init_cluster.yml and configuration files deploy/playbook/k8s/default-psp.yml and deploy/playbook/k8s/system-psp.yml, plus enabling PodSecurityPolicy checking in deploy/playbook/k8s/config.yml.

apiVersion: policy/v1beta1
kind: PodSecurityPolicy
metadata:
name: psp-baseline
spec:
privileged: true
allowPrivilegeEscalation: true
allowedCapabilities:
- IPC_LOCK
- NET_ADMIN
requiredDropCapabilities:
- NET_RAW
hostIPC: true
hostNetwork: true
hostPID: true
hostPorts:
- max: 65535
min: 0
readOnlyRootFilesystem: false
fsGroup:
rule: 'RunAsAny'
runAsUser:
rule: 'RunAsAny'
seLinux:
rule: 'RunAsAny'
supplementalGroups:
rule: 'RunAsAny'
volumes:
- '*'

Results after fixes are shown below:

Note that in spite of all Kube-Hunter vulnerabilities being fixed, the results still show one test failure. The "Inside-a-Pod Scanning" test case reports failure, apparently because the log ends with "Kube Hunter couldn't find any clusters" instead of "No vulnerabilities were found." Because vulnerabilities were detected and reported earlier by this test case, and those vulnerabilities are no longer reported, we believe this is a false negative, and may be caused by this issue: https://github.com/aquasecurity/kube-hunter/issues/358

Test Dashboards

Single pane view of how the test score looks like for the Blue print.

Total TestsTest ExecutedPassFailIn Progress
26262420

*Vuls is counted as one test case.

*One Kube-Hunter failure is counted as a pass. See above.

Vuls and Lynis test cases are failing, an exception request is filed for Vuls-detected vulnerabilities that cannot be fixed. The Lynis results have been confirmed to pass the Incubation criteria.

Additional Testing

None at this time.

Bottlenecks/Errata

None at this time.

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